Nanodiamond s (ND) possess
a unique set of properties for drug delivery that include:
- Rapid transmembrane transport
- High drug loading capacity based on high surface to
- Tunable surface chemistry enabling efficient binding
and sustainable release of drugs.
There are a
few examples of ND uses as drug carriers.
ND in Cancer Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy, the most
common treatment for many forms of cancer, usually results in deleterious side
effects. In addition, most of cancer stem cells (CSCs) initiating tumor growth
are chemoresistant and escape the treatment, accounting for failure in treating
. During standard chemotherapy the drugs are readily uptaken
by tumor cells. However, they are quickly pumped out by the P-glycoprotein, which
is overexpressed in cancer cells.
Chemotherapeutic drugs conjugated
with ND are not recognized by P-glycoprotein and evade the efflux. The
intracellular concentration of the drug increases following sustained release
from the carrier, inducing apoptosis and eradicating the tumor 2.
Thus, ND carriers significantly enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic drugs,
while reducing or preventing their harmful side effects.
Doxorubicin (Dox), a
standard treatment for cancer, was conjugated with ND and tested on mice cancer
models 3. The authors reported that
Chemical grafting of a tumor marker to the nanodiamond drug
complex enables localization of the drug release in the tumor highly increasing
in the effectiveness of cancer treatment.
- ND-Dox complex did not induce chemoresistance.
- A nearly 4-fold increase in tumor apoptosis was
observed in mice treated with ND-Dox compared to the uncoupled drug.
- Elimination or significant reduction in deleterious
ND Theranostic applications
Unique properties of diamond enable efficient
detection of ND in tissues and cells, which makes nanodiamonds an ideal platform
for theranostic applications, combining therapeutic and diagnostic functions.
ND in Photothermal ablation of tumors
The photothermal effect is achieved by
conversion of light energy to heat using nanomaterials. High temperatures
develop locally, leading to cell death. Nanodiamond-metal hybrid particles can
be highly efficient for photothermal ablation of tumors. The photothermal
particles are localized by ND intrinsic fluorescence 4. Particles localized in the tumor are then
selectively destroyed by laser treatment.
- L.N. Abdullah, E.K.-H. Chow, Mechanisms of chemoresistance
in cancer stem cells, Clin. Transl. Med. 2 (2013) 3.
- K. Cho, et al., Therapeutic nanoparticles for
drug delivery in cancer, Clin. Cancer Res. 14 (5) (2008) 1310–1316.
- E.K. Chow, et al., Nanodiamond therapeutic
delivery agents mediate enhanced chemoresistant tumor treatment, Sci. Transl.
Med. 3 (73) (2011) 73ra21.
- Gong J, Steinsultz N and Ouyang M 2016 Nanodiamond based
nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy centresto metal nanoparticles and
semiconductor quantum dots Nat.
Commun. 7 11820