Tissue Engineering is
based on the development of tissue scaffolds that control cell migration,
adhesion and differentiation in order to restore damaged tissues or organs.
The scaffold biomaterials
support cellular processes and tissue growth and maintain a biomechanical
stability similar to the native tissue.
Nanodiamonds biocompatibility, stability, hardness, and
versatile surfaces make them suitable for a broad range of applications in
regenerative medicine. Recent studies show promising results for bone and
neural tissue engineering.
tunable surfaces can be designed to control cell adhesion and proliferation.
For example, the surface
charge of nanodiamonds can be tuned to facilitate physical adsorption of
cell-adhesive serum proteins, like fibronectin.
In turn, the adsorbed serum proteins will allow the adhesion of a
variety of cell types 1. For
instance, hydrophilic surface of nanodiamonds maximizes the biological activity
both in vitro and in vivo 2.
Nanodiamond monolayers can also support the formation of
functional neuronal networks 3.
Nanofillers in polymer composites for tissues
Successful tissue scaffolds should possess mechanical properties
similar to those of the original tissue. For instance, scaffolds for bone
regeneration should exhibit mechanical strength and support significant
mechanical loads. Bio-resorbable polymers, commonly used for tissue scaffolds have
weak mechanical strength. Diamond nanofillers, with superior hardness, reinforce
the polymer matrix. The variable surface chemistry and unique properties of nanodiamonds
allow the creation of multifunctional nanocomposites, such as polymeric bone
scaffolds reinforced by nanodiamonds 4
Combination of reinforcement and drug release properties
Nanodiamonds can be specially functionalized for reinforcing
polymer scaffolds and for drug release in the engineered tissue simultaneously.
The engineered scaffolds in this case release therapeutic biomolecules adsorbed
on the nanodiamond surface 5
Hristova, et al., Improved interaction of osteoblast-like cells with
apatite-nanodiamond coatings depends on fibronectin, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med.
22 (8) (2011) 1891–1900.
- Z. Xing,
et al., Biological effects of functionalizing copolymer scaffolds with
nanodiamond particles, Tissue Eng. A 19 (15–16) (2013) 1783–1791.
Edgington, et al., Patterned neuronal networks using nanodiamonds and the effect
of varying nanodiamond properties on neuronal adhesion and outgrowth, J. Neural
Eng. 10 (5) (2013) 056022
Brady, et al., Development of composite poly(lactideglycolide)- nanodiamond
scaffolds for bone cell growth, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 15 (2) (2015)
Schimke, et al., Biofunctionalization of scaffold material with nano-scaled diamond
particles physisorbed with angiogenic factors enhances vessel growth after
implantation, Nanomedicine 12 (3) (2016) 823–833.